Tuesday, February 28, 2017

Jackpot! 162 Prebiotic Studies from 2017...

...and it's just the 1st of March.

When I first started studying fiber, you could hardly find any papers on "prebiotics" and auto-correct usually changed it to PRObiotic, anyway. Imagine my surprise when I searched PubMed for new prebiotic papers and found 162 titles on the 59th day of the year.

What I love about prebiotics is that they put YOU in control. No need to wait for Big Pharma or Fake Science to supply you with products, you can simply choose better foods, and, of course, choose a cheap food ingredient to boost prebiotic intake even higher.  You all know my favorite supplements:
Raw Potato Starch, Green Banana Flour, Hi-Maize, Inulin, or a combo supplement like Gut Garden's Resistant Starch. But please learn to identify real-food sources as well.  Supplements are just that...enhancements not replacements!
Picture From NutrientsReview.com


Let me give you some teasers. If anyone wants the full-text to any of these, let me know and I'll see if I can find it. Do the search yourself and read them all. If you'd like to discuss these or others, please comment!

FMT!


Fecal microbiota transplantation (Lubbert et al., 2017)
The human intestinal microbiome has important metabolic and immunological functions for the host and is part of the defense against pathogens in the gastrointestinal tract. Antibiotics, probiotics, dietary measures, such as prebiotics, and the relatively newly established method of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT, also known as fecal microbiome transfer) all influence the intestinal microbiome. The FMT procedure comprises the transmission of fecal microorganisms from a healthy donor into the gastrointestinal tract of a patient. The aim of this intervention is to restore a normal microbiome in patients with diseases associated with dysbiosis. The only indication for FMT is currently multiple recurrence of Clostridium difficile infections. Approximately 85% of affected patients can be successfully treated by FMT compared to only about 30% treated conventionally with vancomycin. Other possible therapeutic applications are chronic inflammatory and functional bowel diseases, insulin resistance and morbid obesity but these have to be evaluated further in clinical trials. Knowledge on the optimal donor, the best dosage and the most appropriate route of administration is still limited. A careful donor selection is necessary. The implementation of FMT in Germany is subject to the Medicines Act (Arzneimittelgesetz, AMG) with a duty of disclosure and personal implementation by the attending physician. By documentation in a central register long-term effects and side effects of FMT have to be evaluated.


Chaga!


Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide regulates gut microbiota of chronic pancreatitis in mice (Hu et al., 2017)
Polysaccharide is efficient in attenuation of metabolic ailments and modulation of gut microbiota as prebiotics. The therapeutic effect of Inonotus obliquus [Chaga mushroom] polysaccharide (IOP) on chronic pancreatitis (CP) in mice has been validated in our previous study. However, it is not clear whether IOP is conducive to maintaining the homeostasis between gut microbiota and host. The aim of this study is to testify the potential effects of IOP on gut microbiota composition and diversity in mice with CP. The changes in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), lipase and trypsin levels were measured by commercial assay kits, meanwhile the gut microbiota composition and diversity were analyzed by high throughput sequencing. The IOP treatment increased GSH-PX and TAOC levels, and decreased TNF-α, TGF-β, lipase and trypsin levels in CP mice. It was also observed that gut microbiota in IOP treated groups were less diverse than others in terms of lower Shannon diversity index and Chao 1 estimator. IOP increased the proportion of Bacteroidetes and decreased that of Firmicutes at phylum level. Bacteroidetes was found positively correlated with GSH-PX and TAOC, and Firmicutes correlated with TNF-α, TGF-β, and lipase. In conclusion, administration of IOP could regulate gut microbiota composition and diversity to a healthy profile in mice with CP, and some bacterial phylum significantly correlated with characteristic parameters.

Gut-Brain Axis!


Gut to Brain Dysbiosis: Mechanisms Linking Western Diet Consumption, the Microbiome, and Cognitive Impairment (Noble et al., 2017)
Consumption of a Western Diet (WD) that is high in saturated fat and added sugars negatively impacts cognitive function, particularly mnemonic processes that rely on the integrity of the hippocampus. Emerging evidence suggests that the gut microbiome influences cognitive function via the gut-brain axis, and that WD factors significantly alter the proportions of commensal bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Here we review mechanisms through which consuming a WD negatively impacts neurocognitive function, with a particular focus on recent evidence linking the gut microbiome with dietary- and metabolic-associated hippocampal impairment. We highlight evidence linking gut bacteria to altered intestinal permeability and blood brain barrier integrity, thus making the brain more vulnerable to the influx of deleterious substances from the circulation. WD consumption also increases production of endotoxin by commensal bacteria, which may promote neuroinflammation and cognitive dysfunction. Recent findings also show that diet-induced alterations in gut microbiota impair peripheral insulin sensitivity, which is associated with hippocampal neuronal derrangements and associated mnemonic deficits. In some cases treatment with specific probiotics or prebiotics can prevent or reverse some of the deleterious impact of WD consumption on neuropsychological outcomes, indicating that targeting the microbiome may be a successful strategy for combating dietary- and metabolic-associated cognitive impairment.

Microbes, Immunity, and Behavior: Psychoneuroimmunology Meets the Microbiome (Dinan and Cryan, 2017)
There is now a large volume of evidence to support the view that the immune system is a key communication pathway between the gut and brain, which plays an important role in stress-related psychopathologies and thus provides a potentially fruitful target for psychotropic intervention. The gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem with a diverse range of organisms and a sophisticated genomic structure. Bacteria within the gut are estimated to weigh in excess of 1 kg in the adult human and the microbes within not only produce antimicrobial peptides, short chain fatty acids, and vitamins, but also most of the common neurotransmitters found in the human brain. That the microbial content of the gut plays a key role in immune development is now beyond doubt. Early disruption of the host-microbe interplay can have lifelong consequences, not just in terms of intestinal function but in distal organs including the brain. It is clear that the immune system and nervous system are in continuous communication in order to maintain a state of homeostasis. Significant gaps in knowledge remain about the effect of the gut microbiota in coordinating the immune-nervous systems dialogue. However, studies using germ-free animals, infective models, prebiotics, probiotics, and antibiotics have increased our understanding of the interplay. Early life stress can have a lifelong impact on the microbial content of the intestine and permanently alter immune functioning. That early life stress can also impact adult psychopathology has long been appreciated in psychiatry. The challenge now is to fully decipher the molecular mechanisms that link the gut microbiota, immune, and central nervous systems in a network of communication that impacts behavior patterns and psychopathology, to eventually translate these findings to the human situation both in health and disease. Even at this juncture, there is evidence to pinpoint key sites of communication where gut microbial interventions either with drugs or diet or perhaps fecal microbiota transplantation may positively impact mental health.

HMO's!


Human Milk Oligosaccharides Influence Neonatal Mucosal and Systemic Immunity (Donovan and Comstock, 2017)
The immune system of the infant is functionally immature and naïve. Human milk contains bioactive proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates that protect the newborn and stimulate innate and adaptive immune development. This review will focus on the role human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) play in neonatal gastrointestinal and systemic immune development and function. For the past decade, intense research has been directed at defining the complexity of oligosaccharides in the milk of many species and is beginning to delineate their diverse functions. These studies have shown that human milk contains a higher concentration as well as a greater structural diversity and degree of fucosylation than the milk oligosaccharides in other species, particularly bovine milk from which many infant formulae are produced. The commercial availability of large quantities of certain HMO has furthered our understanding of the functions of specific HMO, which include protecting the infant from pathogenic infections, facilitating the establishment of the gut microbiota, promoting intestinal development, and stimulating immune maturation. Many of these actions are exerted through carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions with pathogens or host cells. Two HMOs, 2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL) and lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), have recently been added to infant formula. Although this is a first step in narrowing the compositional gap between human milk and infant formula, it is unclear whether 1 or 2 HMO will recapitulate the complexity of actions exerted by the complex mixture of HMO ingested by breastfed infants. Thus, as more HMO become commercially available, either isolated from bovine milk or chemically or microbially synthesized, it is anticipated that more oligosaccharides will be added to infant formula either alone or in combination with other prebiotics.

#SAD!


Western diets, gut dysbiosis, and metabolic diseases: Are they linked? (Martinez et al., 2017)
Obesity afflicts 36.5% of the US population and 600 million individuals world-wide. Thus, it is imperative to understand the risk factors underlying metabolic disease including diet, activity level, sleep, and genetics. Another key contributory factor is the gut microbiota given its widely reported role in the development of metabolic disease. The gut microbiota, particularly its structure and function, is heavily influenced by Western style diets rich in a complex mixture of fats and high in simple sugars. In this review, the profound impact of obesity and Western diets on the gut microbiota will be illustrated, and the following research questions will be addressed: 1) to what extent do high fat diets (HFDs) alter community membership and function and does this depend upon the amount or type of fat consumed?, 2) how rapidly do dietary shifts alter gut microbial communities?, 3) are these alterations sustained or can the microbiome recover from dietary stress?, 4) how does diet drive host-microbe interactions leading to obesity?, and 5) what can be done to restore the detrimental impact of HFD on the gut microbiota? The goal of this review is to address these questions by parsing out the effects and underlying mechanisms of how Western diets impact the gut microbiota and host. By doing so, potential avenues for further exploration and strategies for microbiome-based interventions to prevent or treat diet-induced obesity may become more apparent.

Got Kids?


Infant food applications of complex carbohydrates: Structure, synthesis, and function (Ackerman et al., 2017)
Professional health bodies such as the World Health Organization (WHO), the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) recommend breast milk as the sole source of food during the first year of life. This position recognizes human milk as being uniquely suited for infant nutrition. Nonetheless, most neonates in the West are fed alternatives by 6 months of age. Although inferior to human milk in most aspects, infant formulas are able to promote effective growth and development. However, while breast-fed infants feature a microbiota dominated by bifidobacteria, the bacterial flora of formula-fed infants is usually heterogeneous with comparatively lower levels of bifidobacteria. Thus, the objective of any infant food manufacturer is to prepare a product that results in a formula-fed infant developing a breast-fed infant-like microbiota. The goal of this focused review is to discuss the structure, synthesis, and function of carbohydrate additives that play a role in governing the composition of the infant microbiome and have other health benefits.

Modifying the infant's diet to prevent food allergy (Grimshaw et al., 2017)
Recommendations and guidelines on the prevention of food allergy have changed in recent decades. The aim of this review of the current evidence and ongoing studies is to provide a comprehensive and up to date picture of prevention of food allergy for healthcare professionals. The review was undertaken as part of the European Union funded Integrated Approaches to Food Allergy and Allergen Management (iFAAM) study. This is a wide ranging project bringing together expertise across the breadth of food allergy research. Specifically, the review discusses dietary manipulation in food allergy prevention, and covers the possible preventive strategies of allergen avoidance, early allergen introduction, general nutrition and supplements, as well as other strategies, such as prebiotics and probiotics. The review concludes that despite agreement that allergen avoidance strategies should not be undertaken for allergy prevention, there is currently no consensus regarding what actions should be recommended beyond exclusive breastfeeding for the first 4-6 months of life. Recent and upcoming trial results, which are detailed in this review, should help inform the debate and add clarity to the topic.

Immune System!


Effects of prebiotics on immune system and cytokine expression (Shokryazdan et al., 2017)
Nowadays, use of prebiotics as feed and food additives has received increasing interest because of the beneficial effects of prebiotics on the health of animals and humans. One of the beneficial effects of prebiotics is stimulation of immune system, which can be direct or indirect through increasing population of beneficial microbes or probiotics, especially lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria, in the gut. An important mechanism of action of probiotics and prebiotics, by which they can affect the immune system, is changing the expression of cytokines. The present review tried to summarize the findings of studies that investigated the effects of prebiotics on immune system with focusing on their effects on cytokine expression. Generally, most of reviewed studies indicated beneficial effects for prebiotics in terms of improving immune system, by increasing the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, while reducing the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines. However, most of studies mainly considered the indirect effects of prebiotics on the immune system (through changing the composition and population of gut microbiota), and their direct effects still need to be further studied using prebiotics with different degree of polymerization in different hosts.

And of course...Gut Bugs!


How to modulate gut microbiota: diet, pre-probiotics or antibiotics? (Ponziani, et al., 2017)
The gut microbiota is involved in the maintenance of humans' health and its alterations have been associated to several intestinal and extra intestinal disorders. For this reason, there is increasing interest on gut microbiota modulation as both a preventive strategy or as a therapeutic option in different gastrointestinal, hepatic and systemic diseases. Many studies have tried to find out the impact of diet, prebiotic, probiotic and antibiotics on gut microbiota composition and function, obtaining very heterogeneous and sometimes conflicting results, especially as regards the effect on clinical outcomes. However, these preliminary data represent a promising premise for further studies that will provide a more comprehensive knowledge about the role of gut microbiota as a therapeutic target.

Prebiotic inulin-type fructans induce specific changes in the human gut microbiota (Vandeputte et al., 2017)
OBJECTIVE:
Contrary to the long-standing prerequisite of inducing selective (ie, bifidogenic) effects, recent findings suggest that prebiotic interventions lead to ecosystem-wide microbiota shifts. Yet, a comprehensive characterisation of this process is still lacking. Here, we apply 16S rDNA microbiota profiling and matching (gas chromatography mass spectrometry) metabolomics to assess the consequences of inulin fermentation both on the composition of the colon bacterial ecosystem and faecal metabolites profiles.
DESIGN:
Faecal samples collected during a double-blind, randomised, cross-over intervention study set up to assess the effect of inulin consumption on stool frequency in healthy adults with mild constipation were analysed. Faecal microbiota composition and metabolite profiles were linked to the study's clinical outcome as well as to quality-of-life measurements recorded.
RESULTS:
While faecal metabolite profiles were not significantly altered by inulin consumption, our analyses did detect a modest effect on global microbiota composition and specific inulin-induced changes in relative abundances of Anaerostipes, Bilophila and Bifidobacterium were identified. The observed decrease in Bilophila abundances following inulin consumption was associated with both softer stools and a favourable change in constipation-specific quality-of-life measures.
CONCLUSIONS:
Ecosystem-wide analysis of the effect of a dietary intervention with prebiotic inulin-type fructans on the colon microbiota revealed that this effect is specifically associated with three genera, one of which (Bilophila) representing a promising novel target for mechanistic research.

Gut microbiota modulation and anti-inflammatory properties of dietary polyphenols in IBD: new and consolidated perspectives (Santino et al., 2017)
BACKGROUND:
Polyphenols represent a great variety of compounds occurring in fruits, vegetables and plant-derived products. Dietary polyphenols have been found displaying several biological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-aging activities, cardiovascular and neuro-protection, and reduction of the risk of intestinal diseases. The bio-efficacy of polyphenols is tightly linked to their bioavailability, to structural complexity and composition of food matrix in which they are present. Since most of the polyphenols are naturally stored in food matrices as glycosylated and/or variously decorated forms, they need an intestinal bio-conversion in more absorbable forms. Recent findings are highlighting the polyphenols-gut microbiota interplay in the health benefits linked to these compounds. Furthermore, the prebiotic-like activities of polyphenols on microbiota and their potential use in preventive/therapeutic strategies for gastrointestinal disorders are recently emerging.
CONCLUSIONS:
In this review, we will focus on the dietary flavonols, anthocyanins and stilbenes, as widely occurring polyphenols in human diet, their metabolism mediated by gut microbiota and their protective effects on inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs).

The human gut microbiome as source of innovation for health: Which physiological and therapeutic outcomes could we expect? (Dore' et al., 2017)
From the moment of birth, each human being builds a microbe-host symbiosis which is key for the preservation of its health and well-being. This personal symbiotic coexistence is the result of progressive enrichments in microorganism diversity through external supplies. This diversity is nowadays massively overthrown by drastic changes related to clinical practice in birth management, environmental exposure, nutrition and healthcare behaviors. The last two generations have been the frame of massive modifications in life and food habits, with people being more and more sedentary, overfed and permeated with drugs and pollutants...The rationale for our working group has been structured around four domains of innovation that could derive from ongoing efforts in deciphering the interactions between human cells and intestinal microbiome as a central component of human health, namely: (1) development of stratification and monitoring tools; (2) identification of new target and drug discovery, as a part of our supra-genome; (4) exploitation of microbiota as a therapeutic target that can be modulated; (4) and finally as a source of live biotherapeutics and adjuvants. These four streams will exemplify how microbiota has changed the way we consider a wide range of chronic and incurable diseases and the consequences of long-lasting dysbiosis.

Nutritional stimulation of commensal oral bacteria suppresses pathogens: the prebiotic concept (Slomka et al., 2017)
AIM:
To identify potential oral prebiotics that selectively stimulate commensal, albeit beneficial bacteria of the resident oral microbial community while suppressing the growth of pathogenic bacteria.
MATERIAL AND METHODS:
Using Phenotype MicroArrays as a high-throughput method, the change in respiratory activity of 16 oral bacteria in response to 742 nutritional compounds was screened. Most promising prebiotic compounds were selected and applied in single species growth and biofilm formation assays, as well as dual species (beneficial-pathogen) competition assays.
RESULTS:
Increased respiratory activity could not always be related to an increase in growth or biofilm formation. Six compounds were used in dual species competition assays to directly monitor if selective nutritional stimulation of the beneficial bacterium results in the suppression of the pathogenic bacterium. Two compounds, beta-methyl-d-galactoside and N-acetyl-d-mannosamine, could be identified as potential oral prebiotic compounds, triggering selectively beneficial oral bacteria throughout the experiments and shifting dual species biofilm communities towards a beneficial dominating composition at in vitro level.
CONCLUSION:
Our observations support the hypothesis that nutritional stimulation of beneficial bacteria by prebiotics could be used to restore the microbial balance in the oral cavity and by this promote oral health.

Impact Of Human Aging And Modern Lifestyle On Microbiota (Gottlieb et al., 2017)
Human evolution and lifestyle changes caused by the agricultural and industrial revolutions have led to great advances in medicine and increased life expectancy, whilst also profoundly altering the ecological relationships and disease patterns of populations. Studies involving populations that still enjoy a rural way of life and with traits similar to the Paleolithic period reveal them to present a more robust, resistant and diverse gut microbiota, in comparison to highly industrialized civilizations. The human diet has expanded and broadened to include the consumption of high-calorie foods, particularly from animal sources such as game, meat and eggs. For some time, the authors have been alert to the fact that a modern lifestyle leads to reduced intake of beneficial bacteria, suggesting that nonpathogenic bacteria are being eradicated. Furthermore, therapeutic procedures, including the use of probiotics and prebiotics, have been proposed to lead to recovery of this microbiota, which is altered due to both the ageing process and lifestyle related aspects. Accordingly, this article aims to review the impact of human aging and modern lifestyle on gut microbiota, within an evolutionary, ecological, epidemiological and therapeutic context.

Conclusion


It's an exciting time for prebiotics. Elevated from their lowly status as a "regularity fiber," these special fibers are now being seen for their true importance...modulators of immunity, gut flora, and psychology. If anyone doubts the importance of plants and fiber in our diet, you have obviously not been keeping up. Eating a diet devoid of prebiotic fiber is like playing Russian roulette. Sooner or later, you'll pay a heavy price.  

Later!
Tim



68 comments:

  1. Thanks, and here's a bonus from today: https://medicalxpress.com/news/2017-03-intestinal-bacteria-gut-brain-function.html

    ReplyDelete
  2. Tim,
    Ever read Watson's "The Fiber 35 Diet"? I read it years ago and lost 25 lbs. paying attention to fiber. Forgot about it, but recently started paying attention again as my weight started up and I realized I was getting less than 10 grams a day.

    Another Tim

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    Replies
    1. I actually have had quite a few long convos with Brenda Watson the last couple years and taught her a few things. She's more on the "celebrity doctor" level and a bit behind on the science of prebiotics and gut health. But she tries and has pretty good advice. You might want to check out her newest book, The Skinny Gut Diet (http://amzn.to/2mfMX0r). I think she also has a PBS show going, too. Nice lady. Very sincere. Just really busy, lol.

      Delete
    2. Just started reading it. Ever heard of Dr. Levin's fiber powder? Never seen any scope of powder contain so much fiber, around 17 grams with no sugar or calories, as I recall. Used it years ago, and it works, but tasted awful at that time. I just order the Garden fiber stuff from you site. Hope you make 20c :).

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    3. I had not heard of Dr. Levine's fiber, but a quick Google shows me what it's about. Here's his patent for "Ultra-High Fiber Supplement and Method of Reducing Weight, Cardiovascular Risks, and Ingested Toxins." (https://www.google.com/patents/US7030092).

      His blend is a mixture of psyllium, guar gum, oat bran, and Splenda. I'm surprised this blend mixes well with water, guar gum and psyllium both tend to be highly absorbant and turn to glue, presenting a choking hazard which has led to the removal of several prebiotic blends that contain these ingredients.

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    4. Geez, had no idea he had a patent. I can assure you it mixes well and has several favors. I thought it was very pricy, but it does fill you up with fiber. I'll start the Garden blend in the next couple of days. Thanks for the feedback, Tim.

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  3. Am I a fool for not adding any probiotics to my smoothie ?

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    Replies
    1. PRObiotics? I do not think most people need probiotics unless you are trying to recover from gut dysbiosis. Best bet is to eat prebiotic foods daily. Smoothies are an easy way to get goodly amounts of fiber and prebiotics.

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  4. I meant to say prebiotics. Sorry. I need to add some to my smoothie. Any favorites ?

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    Replies
    1. Mix and match as you like: http://vegetablepharm.blogspot.com/p/blog-page_86.html

      Green bananas and raw potatoes also make great additions to smoothies. Staples in my smoothies are chia seeds, flaxseed, cocoa powder, oatmeal, honey, frozen blueberries, and inulin, potato starch, Hi-Maize, or green banana flour. I just add as the mood strikes me. More some days, less some. But always something. It's just too easy not to do.

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    2. Hello. It's the first time reading your blog after being reading animalpharm. It was published an article HOW TO CURE SIBO, Small Intestinal Bowel Overgrowth: Step #2 Eat Resistant-Starch-Rich Tubers, Grains, Legumes and Pulses

      In the list is buckwheat. Really? I am avoiding grain. Is buckwheat aceptable? I want to eat better do you have some guidelines? Thanks. Sorry for asking in the wrong post.

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    3. Buckwheat is a good choice of whole grain. Most whole grains are really healthy. Even wheat if you are not celiac. https://potatohack.com/2016/12/26/potato-diet-prebiotic-probiotic-2/

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    4. While many people think that buckwheat is a cereal grain, it is actually a fruit seed that is related to rhubarb and sorrel, making it a suitable substitute for grains for people who are sensitive to wheat or other grains that contain protein glutens.It also has a goodly amount of resistant starch !

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    5. Buckwheat flour also makes delicious pancakes

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    6. Thanks so much. I am thinking to use buckwheat flour for making sourdough bread and pancakes. I am following Dr Ayers diet except that I love potatoes, roots and tubers.

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    7. There's a fairly decent cooking section in the book. Also find lots of recipe ideas at my PotatoHack.com blog.

      ps. Art Ayers loves the potato hack! He even wrote a foreword in it.

      "“The Potato Hack is a significant health discovery. I say this as a very conservative research biochemist. Tim had to flaunt conventional medical opinions and heal himself, before he was prepared to try a time-honored, 19th Century potato remedy. The Potato Hack is backed by recent research linking simple diets with enhanced diversity of gut microbiota, renewed immune function and improved health. It also explains how a unique soluble fiber in potatoes, resistant starch, can feed the flora and fix a lot of people. Beyond making good biochemical sense, I can vouch for the efficacy of The Potato Hack from personal experience.”

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    8. Hi Tim I don't see a direct link to recipes in the blog, maybe it's me but I just see the potato pizza. Thanks.

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  5. Tim or anyone who has experience with this, do you know the rules on flying with fiber in your carry on? I searched TSA but everything is about liquid stuff.

    Teddy

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    Replies
    1. I just went to Mexico with a ziplock baggy full of potato starch stuffed into an empty instant coffee jar. I did, however, scribble "Potato Starch" with a black marker on the baggie, lol.

      No problems. The worst case, they mistake it for drugs and quickly realize it is not, and you all get a good laugh. Just do not tape it to your body or try to hide it in a body cavity...that might be hard to explain, hahaha.

      If it's in the original packaging, probably even better.

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    2. I've traveled quite a bit with a variety of fibers, even overseas. My bag gets swabbed every time, but aside from the few minute delay it's no biggie. One TSA person apologized and said "We always check the scary-looking stuff." I politely replied that I'm glad he does. I think with the swabs and the dogs it's pretty much no concern.

      In London, they had to gather several agents to check out my bag, but they never asked me about it.

      If you use the original packaging and it's unopened, be sure to take something to seal it up. Learned that one the hard way.

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    3. Europe doesn't have any problems with powders. It is in America, Canada and Australia that I make sure to tick the card that I have powders (food) with me. They are more concerned with liquids.
      Just be honest with them. They become suspiciousif you fill in "no" and then they find something...

      Jo tB

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  6. You should be fine... I went to the super bowl last month had psyllium husk MSM power and a few other supps in my carry one and had no problems...

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  7. Thanks guys. Good to know. I will be going to Europe and changing 3 planes each way with carry on only. I know I can get some of the common stuff while there but green banana flour and acacia powder, for example, would be impossible.

    Teddy

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  8. And the best prebiotic study of the year so far...

    https://phys.org/news/2017-03-indicators-potatoes-mars.html

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  9. Has anyone heard of Megaspore probiotics?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. I hadn't heard of it before. In Googling, I see it must have the infamous Soil Born Organisms, SBOs, HSOs, or whatever you call them, lol.

      Here's a blog post writton by John Brisson, who I generally disagree with 90% of the time, so just read for enjoyment, and pay little attention to his musings: http://fixyourgut.com/hsos-part-7-why-i-do-not-recommend-megaspore-or-my-issue-with-bacillus-licheniformis/

      Delete
  10. Here is some potato news plus new method of analysis:
    http://whfoods.org/genpage.php?tname=newtip&dbid=331&utm_source=daily_click&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=daily_email

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  11. Do you guys think that prebiotic fibers can prevent excess fat gain when eating a caloric surplus?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. No. Excess calories that you don't burn right away don't vanish into thin air, they are stored.

      Delete
    2. Such a loaded question. It's possible that fixing gut dysbiosis could lead to better metabolism, especially if it helped one to escape metabolic syndrome. But for a normal, healthy person with a normal metabolism, eating more fiber will not prevent weight gain from overeating.

      But, eating prebiotic fiber regularly should help to make you and your gut healthier, which should lead to long-term weight stabilization.

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    3. I think Tim is right. It is very complex! The problem is that there are a myriad of systems operating behind the scenes, outside awareness. The gut bugs help to regulate the speed of digestion, presumably speeding it up or slowing down to regulate nutrient absorption. Also, I've read that the gut does not necessarily process food in the order eaten - it can flip places in the colon. It does not seem to be a first in first out static model, but rather a complicated dynamic process. In a healthy gut, at least.

      What I eat seems to be pretty static, calorie wise. I dont notice much fluctuation. But my activity varies by 1000 calories or more, often over a few weeks. (I often walk 12 miles per day when the weather is nice, but none at all when it snows or rains) !This has no effect on my weight. My weight has been in a +2/-2 band maybe 99% of the time for over 3 years.

      I don't believe CICO. But as Tim says, dysbiosis is the enemy.

      Delete
    4. I have a question because I am confused with RS. I love eating cassava, taro, in general tubers and roots. But what happens with the phytic acid tubers and roots contains? And If I eat high prebiotic foods then it won't be any longer LCHF diet? Am I right?

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    5. The phytic acid "problem" has largely been debunked, and now even seen as a benefit of eating these plants. Phytic acid is antiinflammatory and even anti-cancer. The "problem" is perpetuated by the LCHF/Paleo salesmen. Perhaps time to rethink your dietary strategy!

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    6. This comment has been removed by the author.

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    7. I am pregnant and I want to follow a healthy way of eating including my family. I thought to follow a LCHF diet after reading Dr. AYERS and his ideas match Eades. But then I read RS and I love boiled taro, homemade cassava chips, plantain chips, etc. Then it won't be any longer LCHF. Any advise that could help me to re-think my strategy. Greetings from Norw

      Delete
    8. Lee - I just pinged Dr. Ayers, I'll let you know what he says, or maybe he'll grace us with his presence in the comments. But, I highly commend you for focusing on your diet while with child. My first thought is that LCHF is totally inappropriate for pregnancy, and that lots of plants, fiber, and also quality meat is required.

      And also, be thinking about that baby! Hopefully you can breastfeed. And think about high fiber diet for the baby when weaning...potatoes, carrots, etc...

      Delete
    9. Comment on Tim's blog
      I would generalize by saying to follow Tim's suggestions. I see them as basically an updated version of my old Anti-Inflammatory Diet, including new info on prebiotics/gut flora and the general utility of potatoes/RS. His information is current/prescient and his advice is simply effective.

      My biggest gripe with my friend Tim is that he doesn't adequately internalize my obsession with the need to continuously audition new candidate gut flora and let the microbiota adapt to a slowly changing diet. He "eats dirty" from his own garden and can't fully empathize with the more typical, hygiene obsessed who live and eat in a hypersanitized world. He knows from his own experience that changing prebiotic fibers leads to a reduction in gut microbiota diversity, yet he persists in seeking out new plant polysaccharides that require a new suite of corresponding gut microbiota to digest them. Changing prebiotics requires new adaption of gut microbiota and sometimes introduction of new species of bacteria. Tim is kinda like a happily foraging moose.

      My major point is that a prebiotic fiber provides no health benefits, unless the gut already has resident species of bacteria that produce the specific enzymes needed for its digestion. Diet alone is not healthy. Diet requires slowly adapting gut microbiota to produce the physiological/immunological changes to produce health. It may take a week for your gut flora populations to adapt to a new type of fiber/polysaccharide. There are hundreds of chemically different plant polysaccharides and a dozen common types, e.g. starch, RS, inulin, pectin, arabinogalactans, etc., and eating each type will result in major shifts in gut flora.

      Diet consists of protein, fat and some starch to feed the body; and plant polysaccharides, aka prebiotic fiber, to feed the gut flora. Processed foods are unhealthy, because they lack soluble fiber. Any diet without ample soluble fiber cannot be healthy, because it does not feed the gut flora required for health.

      Listen to Tim for healthy eating advice, and listen to me as I try to explain the esoteric biochemical and molecular details of why it works.

      Pregnancy provides special challenges for healthy diet/gut flora adaptations. In general, the body is adapted to provide safe nutrition with the highest priority being a developing fetus in utero. The intestines and liver of a pregnant woman carefully prevent any plant phytochemicals from reaching the fetus, because all phytochemicals are harmful. Additionally, during the first trimester, in which the fetus is particularly vulnerable, the vomit reflex is very sensitive to the bitterness and smell of phytochemicals. This is called morning sickness. Thus, vegetables, and particularly those showing any kind of damage, are not recommended for consumption, especially during the first trimester.

      Oral and gut bacteria ultimately contribute to the mammary and vaginal microbiota of late term pregnant women. These are "dairy" probiotic bacteria that contribute to the neonates unique gut flora and produce the yogurty stools. These bacteria and milk oligosaccharides exclude the growth of adult gut bacteria in exclusively breastfed babies. A single bottle of formula disrupts normal baby gut flora and produces a shift toward adult gut flora (and smelly stools) before the immune system is fully developed.

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    10. Art, you suggest that pregnant women should avoid vegetables? That's just crazy talk!

      We've been eating vegetables throughout our pregnancies, well, forever, and producing healthy children who have grown into healthy adults. Would you rather that women take supplemental forms of folic acid, Vitamin K and every other micronutrient we need to grow healthy babies and sustain our own health??

      I hope that you will retract or at least temper your recommendation somehow. I would hate for even one woman to risk her child's (and her own) health because she took your position that it is best to avoid consuming vegetables as gospel.

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    11. I think that it is possible for a vegan or a carnivore to be healthy with a fully adapted gut flora, or to be unhealthy with a maladapted gut flora. Both extremes need special access to cultural sources of unusual gut bacteria to be healthy. Also note that meat has prebiotic fiber (glycosaminoglycans) to feed adapted gut flora.

      My position is that:
      1. Phytochemicals are uniformly antibiotic and toxic to human cells and gut flora.
      2. Multiple enzymatic systems, P450 polyfunctional oxidases and glucuronosyl transferases, detox phytochemicals passing into the intestinal lining and on to the liver. So most phytochemicals do not reach or persist in the blood stream of healthy people.
      3. Many people on modern diets are dysbiotic. They are immunocompromised and have defective detox systems. Pregnant women with compromised detox systems are at risk when eating vegetables.
      4. Healthy people with healthy gut flora do not require vitamins, e.g. folic acid or vitamin K, because they are supplied by gut flora.
      5. If it is assumed that a pregnant woman has gut dysbiosis and has associated vitamin deficiencies, then it makes sense to me that prenatal vitamins are a safer source for the fetus than are plants.
      6. Peeled, starchy vegetables, e.g. potatoes, would generally be lower in phytochemicals than green parts.
      7. The first trimester is the most vulnerable.
      8. In general, it makes sense to me that a woman/gut flora should be adapted to a healthy diet/lifestyle that she maintains during pregnancy. Change reduces health, because it requires adaptation. It would not make sense for an adapted vegan to eat meat to avoid phytochemicals during pregnancy. It would, however, make sense to avoid vegetables/herbs/spices with high levels of phytochemicals during the first trimester (the adaptive advantage of morning sickness.)

      I would hate for even one child's health to be risked through the misguided thinking that plants and phytochemicals are inherently nontoxic and safe. [Most pharmaceuticals are repurposed phytochemicals, with long warning lists of side effects.]

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    12. It's a shame that eating in 2017 is not at all intuitive. At least pregnant women have a built-in warning indicator (morning sickness) that will help them avoid the worst foods.

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    13. Thanks so much Tim and Dr. Ayers. I DO appreciate so much that both of you took the time to answer me. I have never been into eating so much plants. I didn't developed morning sickness but in the week 17 I did get allergy reaction to something, it has happened 4 times, but I decided not to take medicine and it disappear on its own. Now I am worried that my baby will be allergic to something and I am freaking out :( Greetings from Norway.

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    14. Phytochemical e.g blueberry. That means I cant eat it? Broccoli? Tomato? Garlic?

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    15. After talking offline with both Art and Wildcucumber (a biologist and an herbalist, respectively), I think it is safe to say that you can eat any variety of normal foods that you have eaten your whole life, but if any make you feel ill, stop eating it. Cravings during pregnancy, as well as aversions, are what has kept our species going for many generations.

      I would draw the line at fancy plant-based supplements marketed to pregnant women (ie. Raw Prenatal http://amzn.to/2nEj3Tt).

      Your allergy story probably will end with your baby having a stronger immune system than weaker.

      I should think you, or any pregnant woman, would do well to eat a wide variety of the same plants you've eaten your whole life, quality fish, poultry, less red meat. Lots of high fiber plants. Hopefully no antibiotics while pregnant, a natural birth and breast feeding.

      And no freaking out allowed!

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    16. Lee - first babies are a little nerve racking, too bad we can't have the second one first, eh?

      Just try to remember that it might be YOUR first baby but it's not nature's first baby. Our bodies know what they're doing, so trust the process. It's a freaky thing, being pregnant the first time but as the pregnancy progresses it actually starts to feel really nice to be pregnant. I can't describe it, but once you get to about month 5 you can actually enjoy it. Something kicks in, instinct maybe, and you just mellow right out.

      I had a thing for broccoli in my first pregnancy. We had a garden with a bumper crop - I remember eating it for breakfast and I even drank the cooking water! Kid turned out great. On the other hand, my sister would eat a sandwich and throw up just the lettuce, she was so sensitive to greens. Her kid turned out great too. So it's different for everyone and no one can tell YOU what you should or shouldn't eat, just stay away from too many processed foods, try to avoid too many chemicals like cleaning products and hair spray and like Tim says, no weird supplements.

      Enjoy yourself!

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    17. Oh guys you had make me cry. This is our first baby after 4 years trying after my husband was diagnosed with cancer. He is doing great. This baby was made with a lot of love. Welcome to Norway all of you.

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    18. Good luck to you...all three of you!

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    19. Awww, that's what babies (and their mummies & daddies) need most, lots of love. All the best Lee!

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    20. Hello Tim, Dr Art and wildcucumber. I have given birth 8th July. A baby who decided to come at 40 weeks exact according to my IVF due date. My water broke and 12 hours later a baby boy 8 lbs 24 oz 21 inch was born. Vaginal birth. No antibiótics during my whole pregnancy. Breastfeeding right away my baby. Greetings from Norway.

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    21. Well done Lee! Congratulations & lots of love to all of you.

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  12. Hello Tim. I have found information about how to prepare beans and lentils: soaking and sprouting. But how do I prepare and cook tubers, potatoes and roots for good and healthy digestion. Do you explain it in your book? Thanks I appreciate it.

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    1. Lots of cooking ideas in the book. Potatoes are easy: boil, bake, fry, roast, steam. Cooling after cooking makes them extra special!

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  13. Anyone out there eat much jimaca and if so, how do you prepare it? It is new to me. Today I started a batch to ferment with jalapenos, onions, and cloves of garlic. Otherwise, I am lost. Can it be cooked and if so, would it be like cooking potatoes?

    Thanks,
    gina

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    1. Fermenting jicama is new to me (let me know how it turns out!), and I've never cooked it. But I use it for a classic dish: sliced into matchsticks, with sliced fennel bulb, freshly squeezed orange juice, and fennel fronds as a garnish. I also slice the fennel stems across the strands and add those. Freshly ground black peppercorn is terrific with this. If you can tolerate it, peeled orange or clementine (or similar) slices are terrific.

      This is terrific paired with BBQ meat and baked beans!

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    2. Thanks Wilbur! I've never used fennel either... Growing up in small town mid-America in the 60s, we weren't adventerous in our produce.

      Farmhouse Culture has a couple of different varities of fermented veggies and they have a mix with jicama, jalapenos, onions, and carrots and it is SOOOOOOOOOOO good. It is expensive and so I am trying to ferment my own. I am sure you would enjoy it if available in your area.

      gina

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    3. I've seen Farmhouse Culture in some store near me. I will pay more attention. I'm definitely curious about fermented jicama!

      Fennel, jicama, and orange are perfect together.

      Another high inulin vegetable is Belgian endive. It's a very interesting vegetable. If interested, Google "how is Belgian endive grown". It can be cooked, but I prefer it raw.

      And sunchokes. Aka Jerusalem artichokes. Aka fartichokes.

      Fennel grows wild around here. I've had wild, and it's supercharged compared to store stuff, both in flavor and fiber.

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    4. Thanks for the information. I am not very adventerous in the kitchen and I doubt that I could even keep up with you and your culinary palete, not just as it pertains to RS but also when it comes to the foods you tolerate AND enjoy! As I age, I don't even enjoy cooking much so I like the things that check off the boxes for easy and high in RS. When I see things you have written about that you have made or any posts in regard to your menu, I always think that it would be nice to come to dinner!

      gina

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    5. Wilbur,

      My fermented jicama turned out great. I will definately be making it again.

      gina

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    6. I'm going to have to try the fermented jicama now. I never imagined it.

      I do love to cook. I love cooking for people who love to eat. My wife and daughter definitely do. The downside is that I'm very picky at restaurants. Fish, for example. I know of only two restaurants that cook fish correctly and better than I can. I don't want to know rheir secrets because that would ruin things.

      But simple is great. I love things like jicama, Belgian endive, radicchio, fennel, and so on because they are easy to clean (jicama less so) and can be eaten raw. A nice dinner might be sausage and raw fennel. Another quick favorite is Rao's marinara sauce with ground beef, garlic, and a little anchovy sauce over roasted collards or greens. There's just something about tomatoes and fish sauce together! Or canned sardines sautéed with garlic and onion with roasted broccoli. Hmmm. Can you tell it's getting close to dinner time?

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    7. Yeah, see you use things that I don't even know what they are. I am not afraid to experiment but I have limited experience with so many fruits and veggies. I did ferment some rhubarb once and it wasn't great but might keep trying. I made some fermented cranberry relish for Thanksgiving and Christmas that was great. When I fermented my jicama, I put in a raw potato and it is actually good too. Next time I will add daikon radishes to the mix. Let us know the mix you use when you ferment the jicama and how it turns out for you. I will put more garlic in mine next time as it is much easier (for me) to eat it fermented as it is to eat it like you do. I have put garlic in my vita-mix and added water and sea salt and then drank it and for about 5 to 10 minutes after drinking it, I am afraid it is going to come back up!

      Thanks for the ideas!
      gina

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  14. I love jicama, but can never find it in the stores here in Alaska. It's always in the salad bars when we visit Mexico. They always serve it raw, cut into strips like French fries or chunks like you do with melon. It's crunchy and kind of sweet, contains loads of inulin and RS. I always laugh when people say that there were no tubers or starches that have been consumed raw for many generations. Jicama is native to Mexico, and appears to have been eaten there since the first settlers, not far from where potatoes and quinoa were first domesticated.

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    1. I'm not sure but I think it might be available here year round. I assume that there are lots of people who do eat it or the stores would not carry it.... I munched on a bunch of it yesterday when I was cutting it up (strips or matchstick style) for my fermenting. I was surprised that it is as good as it is and that I liked it as much as I do. So I will have no problem just eating it as is. Sorry you can't get it at the North Pole.

      gina

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    2. The Taqueria Mix is the BEST! This company delivers to SD so perhaps they ship to AK.

      https://www.farmhouseculture.com/fermented-vegetables

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  15. Hi Tim and gang, I have a comment and a question. I had never tried jicama until I read about it here. Now it is my new favorite vegetable. I roasted it in a mix of yellow and sweet potatoes but the big hit is my red salad - chopped jicama, carrots and red beets with salt, olive oil and apple cider vinegar. Everyone loves it. I have also put it in my fermented veggie mix but have not tried it yet. I am sure it will be great.
    My question is for anyone taking Glucomannan - how do you dissolve it in water? I got the capsules from my local store and dump them in water. The powder clumps every time and some of it is wasted because it sticks to the cup walls.

    Teddy

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    1. I get glucomannan and green banana to suspend in water. I put stuff that mixes well, like PS and inulin in first, and then I float enough baobab on top of the water. I can then put glucomannan and banana flour on top of that without them touching water. While I'm doing that, the baobab makes the water more viscous. When I have all the hard-to-mix stuff on top (amla is another), I give it all a big stir being sure to scrape the bottom. I don't know why it works, but I think it's the change in viscosity. It comes out as a thick, shake-like drink. I chug it. It's not something to savor.

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  16. Now you make me want to search all the little stores in town to see if there's jicama in Alaska, lol.

    re: glucomannan - I found the only way to eat it was to mix in yogurt or a smoothie. Same as green banana flour--does not mix well with water.

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    1. I tried the fermented veggie mix with lunch today and it was great. How did I not notice it before! I hope you find it.
      Aren't you supposed to take glucomann with lots of water? Is it safe with smoothie type of drinks? I probably would have swallowed the capsules if I hadn't read here it may not be safe.
      Teddy

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